Objectives: p51/p63 gene, one of the p53 families, is specifically expressed in tooth germ epithelial cells and is essential for tooth development. This study aims to elucidate roles of p51/p63 in ameloblastic cell differentiation. Materials and methods: We determined expression pattern of each of p51/p63 isoforms by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting using emtg (epithelium of molar tooth germ)-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 cell lines established from a mandibular molar tooth germ of p53-deficient mice and SF2 cells which differentiates into ameloblasts upon exposure to NT4. Furthermore, we investigated the function of p51/p63 in these cells by Tet system, which enables inducible expression and knock down of the target genes of interest by exposing cells to doxycycline. Results: The expression of ΔNp51B/ΔNp63α, an isoform without transactivation domain, was detected at high level in immature cells, while the expression of TAp51/TAp63 isoforms, isoforms of with the transactivation domain, was detected at high level in mature cells. Moreover, induction of TAp51A/TAp63γ expression led to down-regulation of ΔNp51B/ ΔNp63α expression and cell proliferation. Interestingly, this also led to up-regulation of ameloblastin expression, a differentiation marker of amelogenesis. Conclusions: The results suggested that p51/p63 might regulate the cell proliferation and differentiation of tooth germ epithelial cells.