Relationship of skin autofluorescence to severity of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes

Masayuki Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura, Hiroshi Kunikata, Hiroko Kanazawa, Kanako Yasuda, Yuji Tanaka, Hideyuki Konno, Mai Takahashi, Taiki Kokubun, Kazuichi Maruyama, Noriko Sato, Masako Kakizaki, Mari Sato, Ichiro Tsuji, Toshio Miyata, Toru Nakazawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between skin autofluorescence (SAF), which reflects the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Sixty-seven eyes of 67 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Sixty-seven age-matched non-diabetic subjects served as controls. Diabetic patients were classified by the severity of their DR: no DR (NDR), non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR). SAF was measured with an autofluorescence reader. Results: SAF in the diabetes patients was significantly higher than in the controls (median 2.5 (interquartile range 2.3-2.7) and 1.8 (1.6-2.3) arbitrary unit (AU), respectively, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in SAF along with the increasing severity of DR (from NDR to NPDR: p = 0.034; NPDR to PDR: p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that SAF (OR, 17.2; p < 0.05) was an independent factor indicating the presence of PDR. Conclusions: SAF has an independent relationship with PDR in patients with type 2 diabetes. SAF measurement with an autofluorescence reader is a non-invasive way to assess the risk of DR. SAF may, therefore, be a surrogate marker candidate for the non-invasive evaluation of DR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-345
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 1


  • Advanced glycation end products
  • AGE
  • Biomarker
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Skin autofluorescence


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