Individual organisms interact directly through behavior, and indirectly through resource consumption and environment modification. The effects of different kinds of interactions on individual growth and reproduction will differ. Freshwater snails may interact directly for food resources and indirectly through substances dissolved in water. I separated the effects of the direct behavioral interaction and indirect interaction through waters using laboratory experiments with freshwater snails Physa acuta. Behavioral direct interaction have negative effects on the growth, but indirect interaction through water environments has positive effect on the growth. The importance of distinction of different kinds of interactions were discussed.
- freshwater snails
- the effects of direct and indirect interaction on growth