Retinoic acid and mammalian craniofacial morphogenesis

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Retinoic acid is a morphogenetic signalling molecule in vertebrate embryos, one being known to perform a specific function in organizing the body pattern along the anteroposterior axis. This molecule has especially attracted research attention because retinoic acid treatment will also induce abnormal morphogenesis, particularly in the craniofacial structures. The present review discusses recent molecular insights revealing how the retinoic acid signal is transduced within a cell, specifically focusing on the involvement of cranial neural crest cells in retinoic acid-induced abnormal morphogenesis in the mammalian head.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-327
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Biosciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1996 May


  • cellular retinoid binding proteins
  • craniofacial morphogenesis
  • facial primordia
  • Hox genes
  • mammalian embryos
  • neural crest cells
  • retinoic acid (RA)
  • retinoic acid receptors
  • retinoid X receptors


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