We studied sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithms for Sendai Bay, using output from the thermal-infrared channels of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on board Terra. While the highest resolutions of other satellite SST products are about 1km, the ASTER thermal-infrared channels provide 90-m spatial resolution. To develop the ASTER algorithm, we employed statistical methods in which SSTs retrieved from the thermal-infrared measurements were tuned against the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SST product with a 1-km spatial resolution. Terra also carries a MODIS sensor, which observed the same area as the ASTER sensor at the same time. The MODIS SST was validated around Sendai Bay, revealing a bias of -0.15°C and root mean-square difference (RMSD) of 0.67°C against in situ SSTs. Taking into account the spatial-resolution difference between ASTER and MODIS, match-up was generated only if the variability of ASTER brightness temperatures (T13) was small in a pixel of MODIS SST (MP). The T13 within one MP was about 121pixels. The standard deviation (σ13) of T13 was calculated for each cloud-free MP, and the threshold of σ13 for choosing match-up MPs was decided by analyzing the σ13 histogram of one ASTER image. The 15 synchronous pairs of ASTER/MODIS images are separated into two groups of 8 pairs called set (A) and 7 pairs called set (B). Using the common procedure, the match-ups are generated for set (A) and set (B). The former is used for developing the ASTER Multi-Channel SST (MCSST) algorithm, and the latter for validation of the developed ASTER SST. Analysis of the whole 15 pairs indicated that ASTER SST does not depend on the satellite zenith angle. We concluded that, using Akaike's information criterion with set (A) match-ups, the multiple regression formula with all five thermal-infrared channels was adequate for the ASTER SST retrieval. Validation of ASTER SST using match-up set (B) indicated a bias of 0.101°C and RMSD of 0.455°C.
- High spatial resolution
- Sendai Bay