Combination of low-dimensionality and electron correlation is vital for exotic quantum phenomena such as the Mott-insulating phase and high-temperature superconductivity. Transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) 1T-TaS2 has evoked great interest owing to its unique nonmagnetic Mott-insulator nature coupled with a charge-density-wave (CDW). To functionalize such a complex phase, it is essential to enhance the CDW-Mott transition temperature TCDW-Mott, whereas this was difficult for bulk TMDs with TCDW-Mott < 200 K. Here we report a strong-coupling 2D CDW-Mott phase with a transition temperature onset of ~530 K in monolayer 1T-TaSe2. Furthermore, the electron correlation derived lower Hubbard band survives under external perturbations such as carrier doping and photoexcitation, in contrast to the bulk counterpart. The enhanced Mott-Hubbard and CDW gaps for monolayer TaSe2 compared to NbSe2, originating in the lattice distortion assisted by strengthened correlations and disappearance of interlayer hopping, suggest stabilization of a likely nonmagnetic CDW-Mott insulator phase well above the room temperature. The present result lays the foundation for realizing monolayer CDW-Mott insulator based devices operating at room temperature.