Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is used to study the real-space local density of states of a two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field, in particular within higher Landau levels. By Fourier transforming the local density of states, we find a set of n radial minima at fixed momenta for the nth Landau levels. The momenta of the minima depend only on the inverse magnetic length. By comparison with analytical theory and numerical simulations, we attribute the minima to the nodes of the quantum cyclotron orbits, which decouple in a Fourier representation from the random guiding center motion due to disorder. Adequate Fourier filtering reveals the nodal structure in real space in some areas of the sample with relatively smooth potential disorder.