Robust watermarking based on time-spread echo method with subband decomposition

Byeong Seob Ko, Ryouichi Nishimura, Yôiti Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


A robust watermarking scheme based on the time-spread echo method is proposed in this letter. The embedding process is achieved by subband decomposition of a host signal and by controlling the amount of distortion, i.e., power of watermark, of each subband according to the Signal to Mask Ratio (SMR) calculated from MPEG psychoacoustic model. The decoding performance and robustness of the proposed method were evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1647-1650
Number of pages4
JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital audio watermarking
  • Signal to mask ratio
  • Subband decomposition
  • Time-spread echo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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