JTT-501 is an insulin-sensitising compound with an isoxazolidinedione rather than a thiazolidionedione structure. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet for 2 weeks were used as an animal model of insulin resistance, and JTT-501 was administered for the final week of the diet. An euglycaemic glucose clamp study showed that the glucose infusion rate (GIR) required to maintain euglycaemia was 57% lower in rats fed a high fat diet than in control rats, and that JTT-501 treatment restored the reduction in GIR produced by the high fat diet. To explain the mechanisms underlying the effects of a high fat diet and JTT-501 treatment, epididymal fat pads were excised and used in the analysis of insulin action. The high fat diet caused: (1) a 58% decrease in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) content with a 58% decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation; (2) reductions of 56% and 73% respectively in insulin-induced maximal PI 3-kinase activation in anti- phosphotyrosine and anti-IRS-1 antibody immunoprecipitates; (3)a 46% reduction in the glucose transporter protein, GLUT4 content and, consequently, (4)severely impaired insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake in adipocytes. JTT-501 treatment restored appreciably the protein content and tyrosine phosphorylation level of IRS-1. Insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activation was also restored in anti- phosphotyrosine and anti-IRS-1 antibody immunoprecipitates. As reflected by these improvements in insulin signalling, JTT-501 treatment improved considerably insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane as well as insulin-induced glucose uptake. However, JTT-501 had no effect on the decrease in GLUT4 content produced by the high fat diet. These observations suggest that JTT-501 enhances insulin signalling and may be effective in reducing insulin resistance.
- High fat diet
- Insulin sensitiser
- JTT- 501
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase