1. Salt-sensitive hypertension is commonly associated with diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease. The present review focuses on renal mechanisms involved in the development of this type of hypertension. 2. The renal medullary circulation plays an important role in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. In vivo animal studies have demonstrated that the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the renal medulla is an important element of salt-sensitive hypertension. The medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) in the outer medulla is an important source of NO and ROS production and we have explored the mechanisms that stimulate their production, as well as the effects of NO superoxide and hydrogen peroxide on mTAL tubular sodium reabsorption and the regulation of medullary blood flow. 3. Angiotensin II-stimulated NO produced in the mTAL is able to diffuse from the renal mTAL to the surrounding vasa recta capillaries, providing a mechanism by which to increase medullary blood flow and counteract the direct vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II. Enhanced oxidative stress attenuates NO diffusion in this region. 4. Carbonyl stress, like oxidative stress, can also play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease, such as insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and renal vascular complications. 5. Despite the large number of studies undertaken in this area, there is as yet no drug available that directly targets renal ROS. Oxidative and/or carbonyl stress may be the next target of drug discovery to protect against salt-sensitive hypertension and associated end-organ damage.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2012 Jan|
- Advanced glycation end-products
- Angiotensin II
- Carbonyl substances
- Hydrogen peroxide