Calcium ion is required at various concentrations for vesicular recycling in the presynaptic terminal. Although calmodulin (CaM) is the most abundant Ca2+-binding protein and has a submicromolar affinity for Ca2+, it is not the Ca2+ sensor for vesicular fusion because this process requires Ca2+ concentrations above 1 μM. Several lines of evidence, however, suggest that CaM mediates the regulation of vesicular recycling by submicromolar Ca2+ via novel protein-protein interactions. In this review, we discuss recent findings on how CaM regulates synaptic vesicle recycling by controlling the SNARE mechanism, which is the molecular machinery that mediates exocytosis.
- SNARE mechanism