Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this Chapter, we first describe the development of subnanometer- resolution scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) for the observation of ferroelectric polarization. We demonstrate that the resolution of SNDM is higher than that of conventional piezoresponse imaging. We also describe the theoretical resolution of SNDM and quantitative measurement techniques using SNDM. This theoretical result predicts that an atomic-scale image can be taken by SNDM. Next, we report a new SNDM technique detecting the higher nonlinear dielectric constants ε3333 and ε33333. It is expected that higher-order nonlinear dielectric imaging will provide higher lateral and depth resolution. Using this higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy technique, we have successfully investigated the surface layers of ferroelectrics. Moreover, a new type of scanning nonlinear dielectric microscope probe, called the ε311-type probe, and a system to measure the ferroelectric polarization component parallel to the surface have been developed. Finally, the formation of artificial small, inverted domains is reported to demonstrate that the SNDM system is very useful as a nanodomain engineering tool. Nanosize domain dots were successfully formed in a LiTaO 3 single crystal. This means that we can obtain a very high density of ferroelectric data storage, with adensity above 1 Tb/inch2. Therefore, we have concluded that SNDM is very useful for observing ferroelectric nanodomains and the local crystal anisotropy of dielectric materials with subnanometer resolution and also has a quite high potential as a nanodomain engineering tool.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFerroelectric Thin Films
Subtitle of host publicationBasic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)3540241639, 9783540241638
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Feb 5

Publication series

NameTopics in Applied Physics
ISSN (Print)0303-4216
ISSN (Electronic)1437-0859


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