It has recently been proposed that the TBC (Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain functions as a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain for small GTPase Rab. Because of the large number of Rab proteins in mammals, however, most TBC domains have never been investigated for Rab-GAP activity. In this study we established panels of the GTP-fixed form of 60 different Rabs constructed in pGAD-C1, a yeast two-hybrid bait vector. We also constructed a yeast two-hybrid prey vector (pGBDU-C1) that harbors the cDNA of 40 distinct TBC proteins. Systematic investigation of 2400 combinations of 60 GTP-fixed Rabs and 40 TBC proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that seven TBC proteins specifically and differentially interact with specific Rabs (e.g. OATL1 interacts with Rab2A; FLJ12085 with Rab5A/B/C; and Evi5-like with Rab10). Measurement of in vitro Rab-GAP activity revealed that OATL1 and Evi5-like actually possess significant Rab2A- and Rab10-GAP activity, respectively, but that FLJ12085 do not display Rab5A-GAP activity at all. These results indicate that specific interaction between TBC protein and Rab would be a useful indicator for screening for the target Rabs of some TBC/Rab-GAP domains, but that there is little correlation between the Rab-binding activity and Rab-GAP activity of other TBC proteins.