Secretion of galectin-9 as a DAMP during dengue virus infection in THP-1 cells

Isolde C. Dapat, Dyshelly Nurkartika Pascapurnama, Hiroko Iwasaki, Hannah Karen Labayo, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Shinichi Egawa, Toshio Hattori

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous cellular molecules released to the extracellular environment in response to stress conditions such as virus infection. Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins that are widely expressed in cells and tissues of the immune system, are localized in the cell cytoplasm, and have roles in inflammatory responses and immune responses against infection. Elevated levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9) in natural human infections have been documented in numerous reports. To investigate the effect of dengue virus (DENV) infection on expression of endogenous Gal-9, monocytic THP-1 cells were infected with varying doses of DENV-3 (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1) and incubated at varying time points (Day 1, Day 2, Day 3). Results showed augmentation of Gal-9 levels in the supernatant, reduction of Gal-9 levels in the cells and decreased expression of LGALS9 mRNA, while DENV-3 mRNA copies for all three doses remained stable through time. Dengue virus induced the secretion of Gal-9 as a danger response; in turn, Gal-9 and other inflammatory factors, and stimulated effector responses may have limited further viral replication. The results in this pilot experiment add to the evidence of Gal-9 as a potential DAMP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1644
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug


  • DAMPs
  • Dengue virus
  • Galectin-9
  • LGALS9
  • THP-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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