Secretion of IFN-γ associated with galectin-9 production by pleural fluid cells from a patient with extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Jingge Zhao, Beata Shiratori, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Makoto Matsumoto, Toshiro Niki, Michinori Tanaka, Yayoi Takahashi, Osumu Usami, Yugo Ashino, Toshio Hattori

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8 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we investigated the role of a matricellular protein galectin-9 (Gal-9) in pleural effusion related to tuberculosis (TB). Plasma and pleural fluid of a patient with extrapulmonary TB were analyzed for cytokine content by ELISA and Luminex. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid cells (PFCs) were examined for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or IFN-γ ELISA, for apoptosis and necrosis by Cell Death Detection ELISA, and also underwent cell sorting. The results indicate that compared to plasma, pleural fluid had increased levels of IFN-γ (1.6 vs. 55.5 pg/mL), IL-10, IL-12p40, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Gal-9 (3.0 vs. 936.0 pg/mL), respectively. PFCs culture supernatant exhibited higher concentration of Gal-9 compared to PBMCs in culture, consistent with enriched Gal-9 staining in the granuloma that is in closer vicinity to PFCs compared to PBMCs. PFCS displayed higher IFN-γ secretion after stimulation with TB antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10. Furthermore, in PFCs, Gal-9 alone could stimulate IFN-γ synthesis in culture or ELISPOT, which was inhibited by a Gal-9 antagonist lactose, and which may promote apoptosis and necrosis. These findings suggest that Gal-9 could modulate immune responses and participate in immunopathology of pleural effusion during TB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1382
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jul


  • Galectin-9
  • Matricellular protein
  • Pleural effusion
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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