Securely computing three-input functions with eight cards

Takuya Nishida, Yu Ichi Hayashi, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Assume that Alice, Bob, and Carol, each of whom privately holds a one-bit input, want to learn the output of some Boolean function, say the majority function, of their inputs without revealing more of their own secret inputs than necessary. In this paper, we show that such a secure three-input function evaluation can be performed with a deck of real cards; specifically, the three players can learn only the output of the function using eight physical cards - four black and four red cards - with identical backs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1145-1152
Number of pages8
JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 1


  • Card games
  • Card-based protocols
  • Cryptography without computers
  • Secure computations


Dive into the research topics of 'Securely computing three-input functions with eight cards'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this