Selective guest inclusion by crystals of calixarenes: potential for application as separation materials

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, much attention has been devoted towards the development of methods for the capture and separation of inorganic gases and organic compounds with high selectivity and efficiency using nanoporous materials. Unlike metal–organic frameworks and covalent organic network polymer, nanoporous molecular crystals (NMCs) do not have extended network structures through coordination or covalent bonding. Instead, they are composed of discrete organic molecules with only weak noncovalent interactions between them. Calixarenes, used as artificial hosts for molecular recognition, constitute a representative class of NMCs that exhibit “porosity without pores.” Despite the absence of empty-channels, calixarene crystals can absorb various inorganic gases and organic compounds, thereby undergoing a guest-induced structural change. Thus, because of their ability to precisely discriminate between molecules of similar sizes and structures, such NMCs show great potential for application as separation materials. This review summarizes reports on the absorption and inclusion of inorganic gases and organic molecules with crystals of calixarenes and their derivatives and discusses their potential as separation materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-277
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr 1


  • Calixarene
  • Inclusion
  • Molecular crystal
  • Separation material
  • Thiacalixarene


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