Series-connected flexible biobatteries for higher voltage electrical skin patches

Shotaro Yoshida, Takaya Mizuno, Shinya Kusama, Kaito Sato, Bibek Raut, Matsuhiko Nishizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


A totally organic, flexible higher voltage enzymatic biobattery is demonstrated by series connection of carbon fabric-based biobatteries composed of a fructose dehydrogenase-modified anode and a bilirubin oxidase-modified cathode. The fructose/O2 biobattery was divided and connected so as to maintain the original size (total electrode size: 2 cm2). The series-connected four quarter biobatteries showed increased voltage and current (0.6 V, 30 μA → 1.5 V, 80 μA) for an external load of 20 kΩ, which is a typical skin resistance. The divided batteries were put inside a flexible ion-insulating frame to avoid short-circuit between cells and electrically connected by soft hydrophobic leads that prevented ionic connection by wetting. Because the developed higher voltage biobattery maintains its small size and flexibility, it can even be put on a finger joint and serve to drive a wrist watch.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-176
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 28


  • Biobattery
  • Biofuel cell
  • Iontophoresis
  • Series connection
  • Skin patch


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