Sex differences in hemodynamic responses and long-term survival to optimal medical therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

Katsuya Kozu, Koichiro Sugimura, Tatsuo Aoki, Shunsuke Tatebe, Saori Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Yaoita, Toru Shimizu, Kotaro Nochioka, Haruka Sato, Ryo Konno, Kimio Satoh, Satoshi Miyata, Hiroaki Shimokawa

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13 Citations (Scopus)


It is widely known that the incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is higher in female, whereas prognosis is poorer in male patients. However, sex differences in hemodynamic response to and long-term prognosis with PAH-targeted treatment in the modern era remain to be fully elucidated. We examined the long-term prognosis of 129 consecutive PAH patients (34 males and 95 females) diagnosed in our hospital from April 1999 to October 2014, and assessed hemodynamic changes in response to PAH-targeted therapy. Female patients had better 5-year survival compared with male patients (74.0 vs. 53.4%, P = 0.003); however, higher age quartiles in females were associated with poor outcome. Follow-up examination after medical treatment showed significant decreases in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) in both sexes (both P < 0.05), whereas only females had a significant improvement in right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP), right atrial pressure (RAP), cardiac index, and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) (all P < 0.05). Baseline age significantly correlated with the hemodynamic changes only in female patients; particularly, there were significant sex interactions in RVEDP and RAP (both P < 0.10). The multivariable analysis showed that SvO2 at baseline and mPAP and SvO2 at follow-up were significant prognostic factors in males, whereas the changes in mPAP, PVR, and PAC and use of endothelin-receptor antagonist in females. These results indicate that female PAH patients have better long-term prognosis than males, for which better improvements of right ventricular functions and hemodynamics may be involved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)939-947
Number of pages9
JournalHeart and Vessels
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug 1


  • Prognosis
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Pulmonary hemodynamics
  • Right ventricular function
  • Sex difference


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