Sex-related differences in the prognosis of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy

Kosuke Nakasuka, Kohei Ishibashi, Yusuke Hattori, Kazuki Mori, Kenzaburo Nakajima, Tomomi Nagayama, Tsukasa Kamakura, Mitsuru Wada, Yuko Inoue, Koji Miyamoto, Satoshi Nagase, Takashi Noda, Takeshi Aiba, Yoichi Takaya, Mitsuaki Isobe, Fumio Terasaki, Nobuyuki Ohte, Kengo Kusano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Past studies have shown the sex-related difference in the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, the data for cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-related prognostic differences in CS patients with CRT. Methods: This multicenter CS survey included 430 patients (295 females) who met the diagnostic criteria for CS. Patients were divided into those treated with primary CRT or upgraded CRT from the pacemaker (CRT group; n = 73) and others (control group; n = 357). Sex differences in the incidence of all-cause death, heart failure (HF) death including heart transplantation, ventricular arrhythmia events (VAEs) (sudden death, appropriate device therapy), cardiac adverse events (CAEs) (HF death, VAEs), changes in serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) over the follow-up period were analyzed. Results: During median follow-up of 5.2 years, males, but not females, in the CRT group had significantly worse all-cause mortality than patients in the control group (P <.001). In the CRT group, there was no significant sex-related difference in the incidence of HF death; however, females had significantly better VAE- and CAE-free survival than males (P = .033 and P = .008, respectively). Multivariate analysis of the CRT group showed that female sex (hazard ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.89; P = .02 and P = .6) independently predicted freedom from CAEs. During follow-up, BNP levels were significantly improved in all groups. LVEF was maintained in females with CRT. Conclusions: In CS patients with CRT, HF death-free survival was similar between sexes. However, females exhibited better VAE- and CAE-free survival than males.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1140
Number of pages8
JournalHeart Rhythm
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac adverse events
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Cardiac sarcoidosis
  • Heart failure death
  • Sex-related difference
  • Ventricular arrhythmia events

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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