The role of sex steroid regulation in gonadal maturation is a very complex process that is far from being fully understood. Hence, we have investigated seasonal changes in gonadal expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), a batch spawner, throughout the annual reproductive cycle. Three nuclear ER partial cDNA sequences (esr1, esr2a, and esr2b) were cloned and all esr transcripts were detected mainly in liver and gonads of fish of both sexes. In situ hybridization of esrs along with germ cell (vasa) and gonadal somatic cell markers (gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βhsd), and anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) for testicular, or gsdf for ovarian somatic cells) showed that all three esrs were preferentially localized within interstitial fibroblasts composed of immature and mature Leydig cells in testis, whereas they were differentially expressed in both follicular cells and oocytes in ovary. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a sexually dimorphic expression pattern of the three esr paralogs in testis and ovary. A significant increase in esr2a expression was identified in testis and of esr2b in ovary, whereas esr1 transcripts were elevated in both testis and ovary in February and March before the spawning period. The localization and sexually dimorphic expression of esr genes in gonads indicate a direct function of estrogen via ERs in gonadal somatic cell growth and differentiation for Leydig cell in testis and follicular cells in ovary throughout the annual reproductive cycle in Atlantic cod.
- Androgen receptor (ar)
- Atlantic cod
- Cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19a1a)
- Estrogen receptor (esr)
- Sexual maturation