Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles

Hiroshi Noguchi, Ai Sakashita, Masayuki Imai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical prediction, in which axisymmetric shapes are assumed: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is revealed that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric discoidal shapes. Polygonal toroidal vesicles and subsequent budding transitions are also found. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-201
Number of pages9
JournalSoft Matter
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 7


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