Short- and long-term effects of different exercise programs on the gait performance of older adults with subjective cognitive decline: A randomized controlled trial

Kosuke Fujita, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Taeko Makino, Kazuki Uemura, Takahiro Hayashi, Aiko Inoue, Chiharu Uno, Tomoharu Kitada, Chi Hsien Huang, Hiroyuki Shimada, Masafumi Kuzuya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Older adults, especially those with cognitive decline, often have poor gait performance, which results in poor clinical outcomes due to falls or decreased daily physical activity. The effects of various exercises on gait performance have been studied, whereas the short-term and long-term effects of different exercise modalities remain unknown. Objective: To compare the short- and long-term effects of aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), and combined training (CT) on the gait performance of community-dwelling older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Design: A four-arm, randomized controlled trial. Setting and subjects: 388 community-dwelling older adults with SCD (mean age, 72.3 years). Methods: Participants attended an exercise or education class twice a week for 26 weeks. 10 gait performance parameters were examined at baseline, post-intervention (Week 26), and after 26 weeks of follow-up (Week 52) using an electronic walkway system. Results: The mean adherence of exercise sessions was 82.5 to 85.9%. All exercise intervention induced an improvement in gait speed, stride time, cadence, stride length, and double-support time at Week 26 (p < .05), without significant intergroup differences among exercise interventions. However, only RT showed a significant effect on some spatiotemporal gait parameters at Week 52. The analyses for the gait variability parameters showed mild effects of all exercise interventions. Conclusion: All of the exercise programs examined had a positive short-term effect on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults with SCD, despite no effect on gait variability parameters. RT are most recommended when long-lasting effects are the primary aim.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111590
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume156
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Gait-biomechanics
  • Rehabilitation

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