Quantum mechanical fragment molecular orbital calculations have been performed for receptor binding of the hemagglutinin protein of the recently pandemic influenza 2009 H1N1 (2009/HIN1pdm), A/swine/Iowa/1930, and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 viruses to α2-6 linked sialyloligosaccharides, as analogs of human receptors. The strongest receptor binding affinity was observed for the 2009/H1N1pdm. The inter-fragment interaction energy analysis revealed that the amino acid mutation of 2009/H1N1pdm, Ser145Lys, was a major cause of such strong binding affinity. Strong ionic pair interaction between the sialic acid and Lys145 was observed only in the 2009/H1N1pdm, in addition to the hydrogen bond between the sialic acid and Gln226 observed in all the HAs. Therefore, pandemic 2009/H1N1pdm has been found to recognize the α2-6 receptor much stronger than the 1930-swine and 1934-human.
- Fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method
- Influenza hemagglutinin (HA)
- Pandemic influenza 2009 H1N1 virus (2009/H1N1pdm)
- Quantum mechanical calculation
- Sialic acid recognition
- Sialo-sugar chain