Significance of powder feedstock characteristics in defect suppression of additively manufactured Inconel 718

Yufan Zhao, Kenta Aoyagi, Yohei Daino, Kenta Yamanaka, Akihiko Chiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The characteristics of powder applied in electron beam powder-bed fusion (EB-PBF) play a vital role in the process stability and final part performance. We use two types of Inconel 718 alloy powders for experiments, namely, (i) imperfect spherical and (ii) spherical powders. They have similar particle size distributions but are different in geometry and built-in defect. The forming qualities concerning surface topography, density, and internal defect of the EB-PBF-built samples prepared using two types of powders are characterized under the same processing conditions. In particular, the forming qualities are further compared under the optimal process condition to highlight the decisive role of powder features. Notably, different powder geometries with distinct surface feature inevitably affect the heat transfer during melting. The significance of powder feedstock characteristics in defect suppression is clarified with the aid of numerical simulations. The experimental results show that compared to spherical powders, fabrication using imperfect spherical powders is more likely to evoke lack–of–fusion and excessive melting under low and high energy conditions, respectively. Thus, spherical powders have a broader process window in ensuring a higher density and smoother surface than that of imperfect spherical powders. Moreover, in the sample built with spherical powders, the high cooling and solidification rates evaluated by numerical simulations result in the suppression of the interdendritic voids.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101277
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug


  • Defect suppression
  • Electron beam powder-bed fusion
  • Forming quality
  • Inconel 718
  • Powder feedstocks


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