Simulation of steel refining process in converter

F. Pahlevani, S. Kitamura, H. Shibata, N. Maruoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Steel refining is a complex phenomenon which depends on numerous variables, so, a kinetic approach is necessary for precise understanding of the refining process. In this study, based on a previously proposed model for hot metal dephosphorization, a new simulation model for the steel refining process in BOF is presented. In most cases, steelmaking slag is saturated with dicalcium-silicate (C2S) and it is well known that C2S forms solid solution with tricalcium-phosphate (C3P) in a wide composition range and the partition ratio of phosphorus between C2S and liquid slag is large. On the other hand, C2S formed around the lime surface is known as a barrier to lime dissolution into liquid slag. In this simulation model not only the effect of solid phase in slag is considered but also the effects of temperature dependence of variables as well as top and bottom blowing and scrap melting are taken into account. The calculation results are compared with industrial data and the good agreement between experimental and simulation results evidence the validity of this kinetic approach to steel refining process in BOF. Moreover, by using this model the influence of various parameters on the reaction efficiency is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-622
Number of pages6
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug


  • BOF converter
  • Simulation
  • Steel refining


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