This paper describes the effect of the seams of a rugby ball on the side force and the flight trajectory of the punted kick. Measurement of the aerodynamic force on a non-spinning rugby ball reveals that the side force coefficient depends on the position of the seam as well as the angle of attack. It was found from pressure-sensitive paint measurements that the seam of the ball is the trigger for initiating low pressure when the seam is situated around 60° from the stagnation point. The flight trajectory of the fluctuating ball can be obtained by numerically integrating the six degree-of-freedom non-linear equations of motion. It was shown that a slower spinning ball fluctuates from side to side during flight because of the asymmetrical pressure distribution on the sides of the ball.
- Fluctuating flight trajectory
- Pressure-sensitive paint
- Punted kick
- Wind tunnel test