Grain boundary segregation in iron-sulfur-carbon alloys containing up to 100 wt ppm sulfur and up to 90 wt ppm carbon has been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show the site compctition on grain boundaries between the segregation of sulfur and carbon. The segregation energy of sulfur is estimated to be 75 kJ/mol. Impact tests of these alloys were carried out. Iron-sulfur alloys with less than 20 wt ppm carbon fractured by the intergranular mode with high ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT's). Addition of up to 90 wt ppm carbon to the binary alloys prevented the intergranular fracture caused by the grain boundary segregation of sulfur, and decreased the DBTT. Carbon, when segregated to grain boundaries, drives sulfur away from the boundaries and also increases the grain boundary cohesion. The DBTT values of the iron-sulfur-carbon alloys are analyzed in terms of the degree of grain boundary segregation of sulfur and carbon. It is shown that sulfur decreases the grain boundary cohesion of iron more severely than phosphorus if compared at the same degree of grain boundary segregation.
|Number of pages
|Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
|Published - 1987 Jan