Smoking and pancreatic cancer incidence: A pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies in Japan

Yuriko N. Koyanagi, Hidemi Ito, Keitaro Matsuo, Yumi Sugawara, Akihisa Hidaka, Norie Sawada, Keiko Wada, Chisato Nagata, Akiko Tamakoshi, Yingsong Lin, Taro Takeuchi, Yuri Kitamura, Mai Utada, Atsuko Sadakane, Tetsuya Mizoue, Mariko Naito, Keitaro Tanaka, Taichi Shimazu, Shoichiro Tsugane, Manami Inoue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. Methods: We performed a pooled analysis of 10 populationbased cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. Results: During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smoking compared with never smoking in both males [HR (95% CI), 1.59 (1.32-1.91)] and females [HR (95% CI), 1.81 (1.43-2.30)]. Significant risk elevations for former smoking and small cumulative dose of -20 pack-years (PY) were observed only among females, regardless of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Trend analysis indicated significant 6% and nonsignificant 6% increases in pancreatic cancer risk for every 10 PYs in males and females, respectively. Risk became comparable with never smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation in males. In females, however, we observed no risk attenuation by smoking cessation. Conclusions: This study supports the well-known association between smoking and pancreatic cancer and indicates potential sex differences in a Japanese population. Quitting smoking would be beneficial for pancreatic cancer prevention, especially in males. Impact: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased with cumulative smoking exposure and decreased with smoking cessation, with potential sex differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1370-1378
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology


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