Solving the discrepancy among the light elements abundances and WMAP

Kazuhide Ichikawa, Masahiro Kawasaki, Fuminobu Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Within the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) framework, the baryon density measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) or the primordial D abundance is much higher than the one measured by the 4He or 7Li abundances. To solve the discrepancy, we propose a scenario in which additional baryons appear after BBN. We show that simply adding the baryons cannot be a solution but the existence of a large lepton asymmetry before BBN makes the scenario successful. These extra baryons and leptons, in addition to the initial baryons which exist before the BBN, can be all produced from Q-balls.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPhysics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sept 2


  • Baryon density
  • Big Bang nucleosynthesis
  • CMBR
  • Lepton asymmetry
  • Q-balls


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