Solvothermal growth of ZnO

Dirk Ehrentraut, Hideto Sato, Yuji Kagamitani, Hiroki Sato, Akira Yoshikawa, Tsuguo Fukuda

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141 Citations (Scopus)


The growth of ZnO single crystals and crystalline films by solvothermal techniques is reviewed. Largest ZnO crystals of 3 inch in diameter are grown by a high-pressure medium-temperature hydrothermal process employing alkaline-metal mineralizer for solubility enhancement. Structural, thermal, optical and electrical properties, impurities and annealing effects as well as machining are discussed. Poly- and single-crystalline ZnO films are fabricated from aqueous and non-aqueous solutions on a variety of substrates like glass, (100) silicon, α-Al2O3, Mg2AlO4, ScAlMgO4, ZnO and even some plastics at temperatures as low as 50 °C and ambient air conditions. Film thickness from a few nanometers up to some tens of micrometers is achieved. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of thick ZnO films on Mg2AlO4 from aqueous solution at 90 °C was recently developed. The best crystallinity with a full-width half-maximum from the (0002) reflection of 26 arcsec has been obtained by liquid phase epitaxy employing alkaline-metal chlorides as solvent. Doping behavior (Cu, Ga, In, Ge) and the formation of solid solutions with MgO and CdO are reported. Photoluminescence and radioluminescence are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-335
Number of pages56
JournalProgress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Dec


  • A1. Solvents
  • A1. Substrates
  • A2. Hydrothermal crystal growth
  • A3. Liquid phase epitaxy
  • B1. Zinc compounds
  • B2. Semiconducting II-VI materials


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