Some aspects on grain refining additions with focus on clogging during casting

Margarets Andersson, Jesper Appelberg, Anders Tilliander, Keiji Nakajima, Hiroyuki Shibata, Shin Ya Kitamura, Lage Jonsson, Pär Jönsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Some ideas of how to study optimum conditions for implementation of grain refining in liquid steel processing with focus on how to avoid clogging are discussed. It is assumed that the inclusions most beneficial for grain refining are known from studies by physical metallurgists. The challenge for a process metallurgist is how to provide a homogeneous distribution of grain refiners at the onset of solidification. Four different ways of providing information to succeed with this are discussed. Thermodynamic modeling can be used to predict what additions to make to create potential grain refiners, if relevant thermodynamic data is available. Mathematical fluid-flow modeling can be used to study where to add potential grain refiners. It is discussed that the tundish is the most appropriate reactor to add grain refiners, since enough time is given to a complete mixing of the grain refiner into the steel before the steel enters the mold. By using the scanning laser microscopy technique it is possible to study which potential grain refiners has the lowest attraction forces between each other. This is important in order to minimise growth of inclusions when they collide during transport in the tundish, which can lead to the formation of larger inclusions that do not serve as useful grain refiners. Finally, it is suggested that laboratory experiments are carried out in order to study the tendency for nozzle clogging, before the use of grain refiners is tested in industrial scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-823
Number of pages10
JournalISIJ International
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Casting
  • Clogging
  • Experiments
  • Grain
  • Inclusions
  • Modeling
  • Thermodynamics


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