Spectroscopic Study of Proton-Transfer Mechanism of Inward Proton-Pump Rhodopsin, Parvularcula oceani Xenorhodopsin

Keiichi Inoue, Shinya Tahara, Yoshitaka Kato, Satoshi Takeuchi, Tahei Tahara, Hideki Kandori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Parvularcula oceani xenorhodopsin is the first light-driven inward proton pump. To understand the mechanism of inward proton transport, comprehensive transient absorption spectroscopy was conducted. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy revealed that the isomerization time of retinal is 1.2 ps, which is considerably slower than those of other microbial rhodopsins (180-770 fs). Following the production of J, the K intermediate was formed at 4 ps. Proton transfer occurred on a slower timescale. Proton release and uptake were observed on the L/M-to-M and M decay, respectively, by monitoring transient absorption changes of pH-indicating dye, pyranine. Although a proton was released from Asp216 into the cytoplasmic medium, no proton-donating residue was identified on the extracellular side in mutation experiments. We revealed that a branched retinal isomerization (from 13-cis-15-anti to 13-cis-15-syn and all-trans-15-anti) occurred simultaneously with proton uptake. Furthermore, although the proton release showed a large kinetic isotope effect (KIE), the KIE of proton uptake was negligible. These results suggest that retinal isomerization is the rate-limiting process in proton uptake and that the regulation of pKa of the retinal Schiff base by thermal isomerization enables the uptake from extracellular medium. This proton uptake mechanism differs from that of the outward proton pump with an internal proton donor and is important for understanding how the direction of ion transport by membrane proteins is determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6453-6461
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 28


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