Spike orientation may predict epileptogenic side across cerebral sulci containing the estimated equivalent dipole

Kamran Ali Salayev, Nobukazu Nakasato, Mamiko Ishitobi, Hiroshi Shamoto, Akitake Kanno, Kazuie Iinuma

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36 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To evaluate whether the orientation of interictal spikes, localized in major sulci by magnetoencephalography (MEG), predicts the epileptogenic side of the sulcal wall. Methods: Sixteen epilepsy patients were analyzed in whom equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) of MEG spikes were localized on the central (four patients), interhemispheric (4), or sylvian fissure (8); and the epileptogenic side across the sulci had been confirmed by seizure semiology, structural lesions, or intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). ECD was classified as epileptogenic side or normal side oriented and correlated to the scalp EEG map. Results: All central (n=50) and interhemispheric (n=83) spike ECDs were oriented toward the epileptogenic side at peak latency. In scalp EEG, 91% of the spikes showed radial pattern of broad negativity above the sulcus whereas 9% showed tangential pattern with positive maximum above the epileptogenic side. Sylvian spikes were only found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In sylvian spikes (n=220), 73% of ECDs were oriented toward the epileptogenic side, whereas 27% were oriented toward the normal side. Conclusions: In central and interhemispheric spikes, epileptogenic side cortex may be gross surface negative through the sulcal wall to the adjacent gyrus. Inconsistent orientation of the sylvian spikes suggests a complex pattern of spike propagation in TLE. Significance: ECD orientation of central and interhemispheric spikes in MEG may predict the epileptogenic side.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1836-1843
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Aug


  • Current dipole model
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy
  • Interictal spike
  • Magnetoencephalography


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