Static-Hazard-Free T-Gate for Ternary Memory Element and Its Application to Ternary Counters

Tatsuo Higuchi, Michitaka Kameyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The ternary T-gate can be used as a basic building block to construct both combinational and sequential circuits. Since the T-gate is one kind of tree-type universal logic module, any combinational circuit can be built up with modular logic arrays. For constructing ternary memory elements, however, the T-gate is required to be static hazard-free. A theoretical study is done on the necessary conditions for the practical realization of the static-hazard-free T-gate. On the basis of the result obtained, the static-hazard-free T-gate is realized using the ECL technique. The static-hazard-free T-gates obtained here can be used as building blocks to construct memory elements. Various memory elements such as D flip-flap-flop(FFF), D master-slave FFF, B master-slave FFF, and counting FFF is constructed easily. Using these memory elements, three different types of ternary counters can be designed and realized. They are an asynchronous signed ternary counter, a synchronous signed ternary counter, and a counter based on a shift register. Their design methods are discussed. These ternary counters are superior to the binary ones in that the up-down counting can easily be carried out by one input signal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1212-1221
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1977 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Counter based on shift register
  • Emitter coupled logic (ECL)
  • Feedback shift register (FSR)
  • Signed ternary number representation
  • Static-hazard-free T-gate
  • Symmetrical modulo-M counter
  • Synchronous and asynchronous signed ternary counter
  • Ternary memory element
  • Up-down counting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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