Nrf2 regulates the cellular oxidative stress response, whereas Keap1 represses Nrf2 through its molecular interaction. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the Keap1 and Nrf2 interaction, we resolved the six-bladed β propeller crystal structure of the Kelch/DGR and CTR domains of mouse Keap1 and revealed that extensive inter- and intrablade hydrogen bonds maintain the structural integrity and proper association of Keap1 with Nrf2. A peptide containing the ETGE motif of Nrf2 binds the β propeller of Keap1 at the entrance of the central cavity on the bottom side via electrostatic interactions with conserved arginine residues. We found a somatic mutation and a gene variation in human lung cancer cells that change glycine to cysteine in the DGR domain, introducing local conformational changes that reduce Keap1's affinity for Nrf2. These results provide a structural basis for the loss of Keap1 function and gain of Nrf2 function.