γ-Aminobutyric acid is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which has two forms, GAD65 and GAD67. Genomic clones coding mouse GAD67 (mGAD67) have been isolated. The restriction map of the overlapping clones covers a region of more than 45 kb of genomic DNA. The mGAD67 gene contains 16 translated exons in addition to an exon which is preferentially expressed in foetal brain. The rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends showed that mGAD67 gene transcripts have two different 5'-untranslated regions. Analysis of the genomic clones encompassing the 5'-exons revealed that the two transcripts arose from a single gene by alternative splicing using two different donor sites and a common acceptor. The exons were found 1.5 and 0.6 kb upstream of exon 1. The corresponding promoter regions of these exons have a number of putative regulatory elements, including Sp1- and Krox-24-binding sites. Analysis of mGAD67 transcripts demonstrated that each of the 5'-untranslated exons was expressed in mouse brain. In contrast, exon 0A, but not exon 0B, was expressed in mouse testis and pancreas. These results suggest that these transcripts may be regulated under the control of independent promoters.