Distribution and growth of very thin surface layers on LiNbO 3 are investigated by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. This microscopy technique involves the measurement of higher order nonlinear dielectric constants, with depth resolution down to one unit cell order. By changing the order of nonlinearity of the dielectric response, we observe the growth profiled process of a surface paraelectric layer on LiNbO 3 single crystal.
- Higher order nonlinear dielectric constant
- Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy
- Scanning probe microscopy
- Surface layer