Studies of the domain distribution of periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) were performed for high-quality quasi-phase matching (QPM) devices and some very important results were obtained. First, a single domain surface layer formed on PPLN was found. And second, the SNDM studies also revealed that a very strong residual stress or an internal electric field remained in PPLN fabricated using the application of a high voltage due to the pinning effect in single crystal LiNbO 3 . This stress or internal field substantially reduced the nonlinear dielectric constant of LiNbO 3 . By annealing to release this stress, it was confirmed that the LiNbO 3 recovered from the reduced nonlinear dielectric constant. In the optical region, this constant is equivalent to the second harmonic generation constant, therefore, it is proposed that annealing is an effective method for obtaining a highly efficient high-performance QPM device.
- Periodically polled LiTaO
- Residual stress
- Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy
- Single domain surface layer