ITO nanoparticles were synthesized hydrothermally and surface modified in supercritical water using a continuous flow reaction system. The organic modification of the nanoparticles converted the surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, making the modified nanoparticles easily dispersible in organic solvent. The addition of a surface modifier into the reaction system impacted the crystal growth and particle size as well as dispersion. The particle size was 18 nm. Highly crystalline cubic ITO with a narrow particle size distribution was obtained. The advantages of short reaction time and the use of a continuous reaction system make this method suitable for industrial scale synthesis.
- environmentally benign technology
- flow reaction system
- supercritical condition
- surface modification