Zirconia (ZrO2) is a promising material in the field of prosthetic and implant dentistry. Surface grinding has been used for surface roughening of zirconia ceramics to increase the mechanical retention of ceramic/resin cement bonding. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonic vibration spindle, which can generate three ultrasonic vibration modes referred to as longitudinal vibration, circular vibration and 3D hybrid vibration, was employed to machine zirconia ceramics by slant feed grinding for producing tailored rough surfaces. Different micro/nano surface textures were generated successfully, proving that the ultrasonic vibration assisted slant feed grinding is a viable method to fabricate tailored rough surfaces composed of micro/nano structures. The surface texturing procedure was mathematically studied, and the influence of grinding and vibration conditions on the textural features was also analyzed.