Surface/interface holography

Wolfgang Voegeli, Yusuke Wakabayashi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The most widely used methods for investigating the structure of surfaces are scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). They are great tools to examine the topmost atomic layer, because they have basically no sensitivity to the inside of materials. One way to obtain information about the depth direction is to prepare a cross section and observe the structure from the side with scanning transmission electron microscopy, for example. Thinning the sample for this purpose risks to alter the sample, however. In this chapter, we will introduce an electron density analysis method based on surface X-ray diffraction, which gives the three-dimensional structure near surfaces or interfaces without the need for thinning the sample or other elaborate sample preparation methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication3d Local Structure And Functionality Design Of Materials
PublisherWorld Scientific Publishing Co.
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9789813273672
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 21


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