A major component of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid (HCl), which can activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In the present study, we investigated how sustained laryngeal TRPV1 activation affects the frequency of the swallowing reflex. Experiments were carried out on 85 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of short and sustained application of chemicals (3 μl of 0.1 N HCl or capsaicin) on the frequency of swallowing and on time-dependent changes in the occurrence of swallowing evoked by supralaryngeal nerve stimulation were determined. To evaluate vascular permeability of the larynx, Evans blue dye was intravenously injected after 5 or 60 min of sustained TRPV1 activation. SB366791 (a TRPV1 inhibitor) and Cap/ QX-314 (a TRPV1-expressed neuronal inhibitor) significantly inhibited HCl/capsaicin-induced swallowing, but air flow-induced swallowing was not affected. Although the number of air flow-induced swallows followed by capsaicin stimulation was not affected within 5 min, it was significantly reduced by 60-min capsaicin or HCl application. The swallowing threshold associated with supralaryngeal nerve stimulation did not significantly change throughout the recording period. Evans blue dye concentrations in the larynx were significantly higher at 60 min in the 10-5 M capsaicin group than in the control group. Our results suggest that sustained TPRV1 activation not only desensitizes TRPV1 but also inactivates mechanoreceptors, which may be attributed to increases in vascular permeability and edema, as part of an inflammatory process. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) inhibitor or TRPV1-expressed neuronal inhibitor significantly inhibited HCl/capsaicin-evoked swallowing, air flow-induced swallowing was not affected. The number of air flow-induced swallows was significantly reduced within 60 min of TRPV1 activation. Evans blue dye concentration in the larynx increased 60 min after capsaicin application. TPRV1 activation not only desensitizes TRPV1 but also inactivates mechanoreceptors caused by increases in vascular permeability and edema.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2020 Sept|