Synthesis of Divalent Sn Compounds Under Microwave Non-Equilibrium Reaction Field

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Chemical reaction between two or more components under microwave electromagnetic field is essentially "non-equilibrium reaction" because microwave absorbing behavior strongly depends on a nature of a material. Selective heating of a specific component plays a key role on the formation of non-equilibrium structure. The existence of stereoactive lone pair (5s2) is an issue of concern of Sn2+ compounds in a view point of ferroelectricity, however, it is difficult to synthesize Sn2+ compounds because SnO tends to decompose to metallic Sn and Sn4+O2 at elevated temperature. Binary SnO-TiO2 system is a typical selective heating system under microwave irradiation because SnO strongly absorbs microwaves, but TiO2 is nearly transparent to microwaves. During microwave irradiation to the powder mixture of SnO and TiO2, a drastic enhancement of reaction kinetics could be achieved under thermally non-equilibrium condition. This makes it possible to synthesize a non-equilibrium Sn2+ compound, Sn2TiO4, avoiding the disproportionation reaction of SnO. Optimal synthetic condition to obtain a single-phase Sn2TiO4 and the comparison with the other external rapid heating system was studied.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProcessing and Properties of Advanced Ceramics and Composites VI
Subtitle of host publicationCeramic Transactions
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781118995433
ISBN (Print)9781118995495
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sept 15


  • External rapid heating system
  • Microwave electromagnetic
  • Microwave irradiation
  • Non-equilibrium reaction
  • Selective heating


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