Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) lipids were synthesized by introducing a long alkyl chain, such as C13, C15, and C17, at each vinyl group on PPIX via hydrobromination. The PPIX lipids exhibited a water-soluble property by forming their micelles in water and the PPIX-lipid micelles showed relatively low cytotoxicity toward HeLa cells (IC50 = 151.7-379.9 μM) without light irradiation. PL-C17 liposomes (post-inserted liposomes) were readily prepared by adding PL-C17 micelle solution to the liposome solution. The IC 50 values of PPIX, PL-C17 micelles, and PL-C17 liposomes toward HeLa cells were 0.53, 5.65, and 12.9 μM, respectively, after irradiation with a xenon lamp in the 400-800 nm range for 2 min. PL-C17 liposomes were selectively accumulated in the Golgi apparatus in cells.
- Drug delivery system (DDS)
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
- Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX)
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS)