Background: Microtubule Targeting Agents (MTAs) including paclitaxel, colchicine and vinca alkaloids are widely used in the treatment of various cancers. As with most chemotherapeutic agents, adverse effects and drug resistance are commonly associated with the clinical use of these agents. Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1Hbenzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC), a benzimidazole derivative displays greater toxicity against various cancer compared to normal human cell lines. The present study, focused on the cytotoxic effects of MBIC against HeLa cervical cancer cells and possible actions on the microtubule assembly. Methods: Apoptosis detection and cell-cycle assays were performed to determine the type of cell death and the phase of cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Tubulin polymerization assay and live-cell imaging were performed to visualize effects on the microtubule assembly in the presence of MBIC. Mitotic kinases and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In addition, the synergistic effect of MBIC with low doses of selected chemotherapeutic actions were examined against the cancer cells. Results: Results from the present study showed that following treatment with MBIC, the HeLa cells went into mitotic arrest comprising of multi-nucleation and unsegregated chromosomes with a prolonged G2-M phase. In addition, the HeLa cells showed signs of mitochondrial-dependant apoptotic features such as the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases. MBIC markedly interferes with tubulin polymerization. Western blotting results indicated that MBIC affects mitotic regulatory machinery by up-regulating BubR1, Cyclin B1, CDK1 and down-regulation of Aurora B. In addition, MBIC displayed synergistic effect when given in combination with colchicine, nocodazole, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive microtubule destabilizing effects of MBIC against cervical cancer cells in vitro. Besides that, MBIC exhibited synergistic effects with low doses of selected anticancer drugs and thus, may potentially reduce the toxicity and drug resistance to these agents.
|Journal||Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
- Cervical cancer
- Microtubule dynamics
- Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis
- Mitotic arrest