Four strains of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from a red alga and from pufferfish were characterized. Two of these strains are members of the genus Listonella MacDonell and Colwell. The phenotypic characteristics, guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and base sequences of the 16S rRNAs of these organisms indicated that they are members of Listonella pelagia (Vibrio pelagius) biovar II. The other two strains are members of the genus Alteromonas Baumann et al. and the genus Shewanella MacDonell and Colwell. These two strains are mutually distinct and distinct from the previously described Alteromonas and Shewanella species and therefore are placed in new species. The names Shewanella alga and Alteromonas tetraodonis are proposed for these organisms; the type strains are strains OK-1 and GFC, respectively.