Technological progress is important for advancing crop productivity and quality and efficient production systems in horticulture. In particular, the development of technology has been required for labor saving, good quality (e.g., sweetness) for consumers, and increased functional components for preventing adult disease. Here, recent technological advances in cultivation and breeding, mainly of fruits, in Japan are described with their scientific background. Advanced horticultural technologies in Japan include the joint tree training system, which is labor saving and promotes early and high yield, and the new chestnut (Castanea crenata) cultivar 'Porotan' with the easy-peeling trait. β-Cryptoxanthin has been found to be a useful functional component and rich in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). The constant temperature short duration (CTSD) method has been developed to remove the stringency of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki). As technological progress in vegetable production, night chilling and short-day treatment is described with the elevated bed system in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) cultivation. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), progress in breeding and cultivation is described along with the bioresource project in the postgenome era. The recent development of plant factories draws attention as a future-oriented technology in horticulture. There is still room for development in horticultural production in the Asia-Pacific area. For example, fruit consumption per person in Asia is much lower than that in Europe and North America and, in particular, East Asian countries rank low in fruit consumption per person. Exchanges of technologies and academic knowledge such as those presented in the Asia-Pacific area will have a strong impact on horticultural science and production in the next decade.