Crystalline polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, can form superior assemblies in terms of physicochemical stability and mechanical properties. However, their use as molecular building blocks for self-assembled materials is rare, possibly because each crystalline polysaccharide has its own unique monomer unit, preventing molecular design for controlling the self-assembly. Herein, we demonstrate the temperature-directed assembly of crystalline cellulose oligomers into kinetically trapped structures, namely, precipitated nanosheets, nanoribbon network hydrogels, and dispersed nanosheets (in descending order of temperature). It was found that enzymatically synthesized cellulose oligomers self-assembled in situ into those structures depending on the synthetic temperatures. Mechanistic studies suggested that the formation of the nanoribbon networks and the dispersed nanosheets at lower temperatures were driven by synergy between the decreased hydrophobic effect and the simultaneously induced self-crowding effect. Furthermore, nanoribbon network formation was exploited for the construction of cellulose oligomer-based hybrid gels with colloidal particles. Our findings promote the development of robust self-assembled materials composed of crystalline polysaccharides with highly ordered nano-to-macroscale structures.