We performed a comprehensive statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace satellite (ERG/Arase). From 2017 to 2018, we identified and categorized EMIC wave events with respect to wavebands (H+ and He+ EMIC waves) and relative locations from the plasmasphere (inside and outside the plasmasphere). We found that H+ EMIC waves in the morning sector at L > 8 are predominantly observed with a mixture of linear and right-handed polarity and higher wave normal angles during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Both H+ and He+ EMIC waves observed in the noon sector at L ∼ 4–6 have left-handed polarity and lower wave normal angles at |MLAT| < 20° during the recovery phase of a storm with moderate solar wind pressure. In the afternoon sector (12–18 MLT), He+ EMIC waves are dominantly observed with strongly enhanced wave power at L ∼ 6–8 during the storm main phase, while in the dusk sector (17–21 MLT) they have lower wave normal angles with linear polarity at L > 8 during geomagnetic quiet conditions. Based on distinct characteristics at different EMIC wave occurrence regions, we suggest that EMIC waves in the magnetosphere can be generated by different free energy sources. Possible sources include the freshly injected particles from the plasma sheet, adiabatic heating by dayside magnetospheric compressions, suprathermal proton heating by magnetosonic waves, and off-equatorial sources.
- EMIC wave dependence on geomagnetic condition
- EMIC wave properties
- RBSP and Arase observations
- spatial distributions of EMIC waves